Different Types of Stones Used in Building Construction Every Contractor Should Know

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Usage of Stones in the Construction Industry

Different types of Stones are used in construction industry for different purposes such as for flooring, paving roads, masonry works, roofing, etc.
Stones are manufactured from different artificial and naturally occurring substances. Stones used in construction should be rugged, durable, and free from cracks and other defects. A stone is formed from rocks after it has been trimmed or dressed or polished into tiny pieces.

Picture showing different types of rocks through infographics and a box which contains the examples of each type.

Types of Rocks
i) Igneous Rocks – Basalt, Trap, Andesite, Rhyolite, Diorite, Granite
ii) Sedimentary Rocks – Lime stones, Dolomite, and Sandstones
iii) Metamorphic Rocks – Gneiss, Quartzite, Marble, Slate

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Different Types of Stones Used in Construction

1) Granite

Picture of a granite rocks of different designs

Granite is a light-colored stone that possesses a massive crystalline structure. Granite is mainly used in construction for making table tops, kitchen tops, etc. The advantage of granite is that it is a solid, durable, and weather-resistant rock.

2) Syenite

Picture of syenite rock

Syenite is also an ingenious rock, and its texture is similar to granite. Syenite is used for various construction processes such as the construction of pavements, external facings of building walls, etc.

3) Pumice

Picture of pumice rock

Pumice is a fine-grained rock. Pumice is formed during molten lava’s rapid cooling and solidification, although its specific composition is still unknown. Pumice rocks have a shallow specific gravity that can float on water.

4) Basalt

Picture of basalt rock

Basalt is a dark-colored fine-grained rock with a mono crystalline and aphantic texture. The advantages of basalt include its high resistance to corrosion and high-temperature making, which provides safety & stability to the structure.

5) Sandstone

Picture of sandstone rock

Sandstone is a compact, homogeneous, non-crystalline rock used in various construction activities such as building and road constructions. Sandstone is entirely composed of quartz grains of medium size, which are cemented together by siliceous materials.

6) Shale

Picture of shale rock

Shale is a fine-grained rock made up of quartz grains used as a component in cement production and aggregates for road construction. It is also used as a component for bricks and tiles manufacturing.

7) Limestone

Picture of limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock mainly used as a raw material in the cement and tiles manufacturing industry. It is a complex, non-crystalline rock consisting of calcium carbonate in its composition. The main advantage of using limestone is that it is a natural way of cooling structures and it is also very durable.

8) Marble

Picture of marble

Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of calcite or dolomite crystals. Marbles exhibit a variety of colors, and their colors vary from purest white to black. Marble is solid and durable rock, making it the perfect choice for flooring and interior decor works.

9) Quartzite

Picture of quartzite

Quartzite is a metamorphic rock and the most popular stone used in the construction industry. It is formed from a parent rock of quartz-rich sandstone. Quartzite is used primarily to cover walls as a decorative material. The advantages of quartzite include its hardness, texture, and high strength.

10) Gneiss

Picture of gneiss

Gneiss rocks are formed when a sedimentary or igneous rock has been buried deeply under high temperatures and pressures. These rocks are used for decorative purposes on floors, walls, etc.


Stones are a vital part of raw materials used in construction industry. There are various types of stones available in the market according to the nature of the construction project, A contractor should always understand the nature and execution of his project before placing the order for stones.

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shikhar shukla
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